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What You Need To Know About Ap Chemistry

  • Posted on November 17, 2018 at 2:41 am

By Gabriel Adams

Advanced Placement Chemistry (AP Chem) is only one of the 35 Advanced Placement courses (in over 20 different subjects) participated in by over a million gifted, talented, and/or highly motivated students each year.

Each student of AP Chem will become well acquainted, if not completely familiar with a multitude of subject matter including, but not limited to: chemical bonds, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, properties and phases of matter and solutions, nuclear chemistry, reaction kinetics, atomic theory, stoichiometry, and thermodynamics.

Successful completion of both a second-year high school algebra course and general chemistry course are recommended as prerequisites prior to taking an AP Chem class. An AP Chem course is the equivalent to a first-year college general chemistry course, including laboratory experience.

Typically, AP courses are taken in preparation for the Advanced Placement Examaminations (AP Exams) taken in May of each year. The two main sections of the AP Chem Exam are currently 6 free-response essay questions based on hypothetical scenarios and 75 multiple-choice questions.

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A periodic table of elements is the only acceptable reference material in the hour and a half of time alloted for section one. The use of a calculator is forbidden during the multiple-choice questions section and during the second part of section two. However, two pages of conventions, equations, and a list of standard reduction potentials may be used in section two.

The second section is split into two subsections of two problems each, (A) 55 and (B) 40 mintues, respectively. If subsection B is completed early, subsection A may be edited in the time remaining.

The AP Chemistry Exam is available to any student in secondary school throughout the U.S. and Canada, but also to home-school students. Regardless of the letter grade attained in class or even whether or not the student has even taken the AP Chem course, he or she is eligible take the AP Exam.

These college-level exams and programs have been stringently improved and regularly updated since their initial inception in 1955, by the College Board. Though the organization known as the College Board is a non-profit organization, students are charged a fee in order to take the exams. Financial aid is available to those who qualify.

The exams are scored on a scale of 1 through 5. A score of 1 (No Recommendation) is effectively an ‘F’, while a 5 (Well-Qualified) equates to an ‘A’, though typical transcripts simply show whether or not credit has been acquired. Test scores are compared, using the bell curve grading method, as opposed to a set standard. Though their policies differ, most colleges accept a score of 4 or 5; a 3 is considered ‘passing’ or ‘Qualified.’ Approximately 25% of the nearly 100,000 students who take the AP Chemistry exam receive a failing score of 1.

A student demonstrating aptitude by scoring ‘Qualified’ (or better) on AP tests are often exempt from introductory course requirements by many colleges and universities. Over two thousand colleges participate in Advanced Placement Programs. Admissions Counselors and/or Course Advisors should be consulted due to variations in placement testing methods and policies at individual institutions of higher learning.

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Recording The Sale Of Real Estate Know The Law And Don’t Get Burned

  • Posted on August 16, 2018 at 1:17 am

By Bobby Carnes

In the United States, every state has enacted one of three different types of recording statutes to govern the official recording of a transfer or real estate from one party to another:

(1) Notice Statutes

Suppose you sell your house to Party A, Party A fails to record the sale, you turn around and sell the same house to Party B who doesn’t have ‘notice’ that you previously sold the house to Party A (that is, Party B not only didn’t know about the previous sale, he also had no reason to know about it). Now Party A and Party B wind up in court fighting over who owns the property because you skipped off to Tahiti with all your money and property, whose house does it belong to? In states with a notice statute, the house belongs to Party B, because Party A had a chance to record the previous sale but didn’t. The result would be the same even if Party B didn’t record his purchase either.

If Party A wants his money back he’s gonna have to fly to Tahiti and sue you there. In practice, this usually plays out when somebody buys a piece of real estate without knowing that the bank has a mortgage on it, because the bank neglected to record the mortgage.

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Keep in mind that if Party B knew (or should have known) about the previous sale to Party A, Party B would lose even if he recorded first.

(2) Race Statutes

It’s a ‘race to the courthouse’, and the first one to record his purchase wins. In states with race statutes, Party B would win even if he knew about the previous sale as long as he recorded his interest first. Only a few states have race statutes – they are considered by most judges to be outdated and unfair.

(3) Race-Notice Statutes

Under this system, in order for a subsequent purchaser to win against a prior purchaser of the same property who didn’t record his prior purchase, the second purchaser will have to prove that he (i) didn’t have notice of the first purchase, and (ii) he recorded his purchase before the first purchaser did. The difference with the notice statute is that if Party B lived in a state with a race-notice statute, Party A could still win as long as he beat Party B to the courthouse to record his purchase.

DISCLAIMER: The following is intended for reference only and not as legal advice.

About the Author: Real Estate Law in Plain English explains real estate law without the legalese.


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6 Steps On How To Save Your Marriage And Avoid Divorce

  • Posted on June 18, 2018 at 1:16 am

By Carson Burnett

One of the biggest problems with marriage breakdowns today is instead of asking the question of how to save your marriage, you are asking how do I get out of this relationship?

There is little doubt that the financial costs alone that are involved with a marriage break up leading to divorce is beginning to be enough to get people to think twice. The problem is though, finding the answers on how to save your marriage can be confusing. Here are a few steps that you can take to help you get started.

1. Stop what you are doing

To begin with you need to stop and take a breather. When a marriage is going sour there are so many emotions that flare up the focus needs to be placed on getting those emotions in control.

The problem is with the fast paced lifestyle that most people live, there is never enough time to deal with those emotions logically, and then life becomes one big turmoil.

2. Deal with the stress of the emotions

Tensions build and so does the stress. So the first step is to set the issues aside, and deal with the current stress created by the emotions ,by getting them in control. This will allow you to calm down so you can focus on the issues causing the problems in the relationship, which will then mean you can approach the solution on how to save your marriage.

3. Deal with the current emotions

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This means all those feelings such as anger, hurt, and frustration, have to be dealt with now. If you can’t get them out of the way you cannot move forward to a solution.


Perhaps you are angry with your spouse for something they had done, or because your partner doesn’t understand you, or for a ton of other reasons.


You are hurt, which is a good sign incidentally because there is still love there, which is the seed for working out the problems.


You really want to work things out and put a plan of action together on how to save your marriage but you don’t know where to start.

Just by acknowledging these emotions will give you a starting point.

4. The first approach

Depending on what level of marriage breakdown you are at will determine how difficult this stage is going to be. The first thing you must create in yourself though is determination. You need to know in your heart and mind that you want to make this relationship work, and you are going to do what it takes to do so and hopefully avoid divorce.

So what you have done here is made the first move. You are beginning to defuse an angry situation. You start by telling your spouse that you care deeply for them, that you want to work out your relationship and you are willing to work at doing this for however long it takes.

Now look carefully at the chosen words here, “work at putting the relationship back together,’ this is not saying that you will give in to every demand your spouse may be making. So you do not have to resign yourself to the resolution that you have simply given in. Having this type of mindset will hold you back on working on the solutions of how to save your marriage.

At this first approach the first thing you want to do is get your spouse to agree to a truce for two or three days, where you both agree that there will be no arguing or discussing the marriage breakdown issues.

5. Take some breathing room

What you both need to do is take some breathing room and then list all of things that are bothering you, and what you feel is the cause of the problems. This is the list you will both work on when you get to the marriage repair stage.

While you are in this holding pattern try to be civil to each other, but make sure you do not discuss the issues. This cooling down period and soul searching time is the foundation for positive action.

6. Starting the marriage recovery

Now that a few days have past, agree on a time where the two of you can spend a period of time discussing just one issue each on your lists of problems. Also set a time limit. If you don’t set a time limit and a solution is not being resolved you will begin rehashing your feelings, and it will eventually become frustrating which will then turn to anger.

Continue working through your problems like this, you can be confident that you have made some good steps towards on to how to save your marriage.

About the Author: Carson Burnett is a relationship expert. For more great information on

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What It Takes To Start Your Own Cleaning Service Business

  • Posted on April 15, 2018 at 1:19 am

By Loren Yadeski

One of the things we assume when we start something is our interest in it. We would want to see that what we started would end up successful and that our ideas come to bear results through others who put them into practice. Our interest should carry our endeavor to completion so that others will also benefit from the fruits of our labor. The cleaning business is not a glamorous one; it involves going after the dirt and rubbish left by others. Who doesn’t remember refusing to take out the garbage at night? And who could deny making excuses to their mothers so they can escape and avoid cleaning their own rooms? But this is because we didn’t know any better. There is something to gain after all from cleaning dirt. A cleaning business may not really be glamorous but it certainly fill your pockets with beautiful cash.

But is this business really for you? Do you have what it takes to clean toilets and bathrooms for a living? You have to have the determination to succeed and willingness to make your customers happy by providing the best cleaning jobs they have ever seen.

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Honesty is one personal quality you and your cleaning staff should possess. Your customers will have to trust you and they can only do that if you are honest. They will have to leave their homes open to you and if they are not comfortable with that idea, you will never get their business. But honesty is not something you just tell your customers you have. It is built through years of determined efforts to keep honest. Your customers will be your witness and their testimonies your proof.

Once you have made a firm decision to start a cleaning business, you will have to decide on the type of services you will offer. There are many cleaning services to offer and you don’t have to include them all but it helps to make sure that you are ready to deliver whatever cleaning service your customers will be looking for. The usual services include mopping, dusting, emptying trash and cleaning bathrooms. (Sounds familiar, right? These were the same tasks you refused to do at home.)

Some cleaning services also offer window washing, carpet cleaning and waxing and polishing floors. You will also have to decide if you want to clean residential houses only or business facilities only. You could do both actually but you have to be sure you can deliver what you promise to your customers. Residential homes require less cleaning than commercial ones. Your supplies and equipment should be able to deal with the cleaning requirements of your clients. Commercial cleaning jobs need industrial strength supplies and equipment while household cleaning jobs could do with good quality household equipment such as a vacuum cleaner. You will realize that starting a commercial cleaning business needs more startup costs than a residential cleaning service only. Determining the rates you will charge your customers is a tricky part of the business. The rates you will charge will have to be competitive with the other cleaning services in your community.

About the Author: Loren Yadeski, author of this article is also interested in

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Professional Bookkeeping And Financial Planning Services In Australia}

  • Posted on April 10, 2018 at 1:20 am

Professional Bookkeeping and Financial Planning Services in Australia


Mark Bonney

Gone are the days when you could simply hand over tax receipts and invoices to an accountant and ask him to prepare your yearly financial accounts. Book-keeping, and in turn financial planning today has become far more complex with the changing Tax rules and laws, changes in compliance regulations as well as changes in the business scenario.What is the need for professional bookkeeping and financial services?Complying with the changing tax laws and keeping up with them is a constant struggle even for the most experienced of business owners. In such a situation, it becomes difficult and time consuming for business owners to maintain their own books or plan their finances accurately. The task of bookkeeping and financial planning must be handed over to the experts which most business owners do. As a result, professional bookkeeping and financial planning services in Australia are in much demand.Advantages of Bookkeeping Services Sydney and financial planning services in AustraliaAs we have seen, small and large business enterprises require the assistance of professional bookkeepers as a matter of course. For owners it takes away the stress of the accounting process which is quite intimidating to say the least. Professional bookkeeping helps keep a watch on the business activities so that the owners are aware of what is happening with their business.Professional bookkeeping services can detect early warning signs for any problematic issues and corrective action can be taken before such issues go out of hand. In addition, by analysing the business situation, professional bookkeepers provide good advice on tax strategies, cash flows, restructuring, investments and any other financial aspect that the client needs help with.Save your costs with professional bookkeeping and Financial Planning Parramatta in AustraliaWhen you engage professional bookkeeping and financial planning services, the tax payment and statutory reporting is carried out on time ensuring that you do not spend extra on penalties. A systematic approach to the process of accounting ensures that your books are up to date making it easier to prepare the yearly accounts. This saves a lot of time. More importantly you have the current financial information at your fingertips which is critical for accurate financial planning. Business Adviser is a bookkeeping and accountancy firm based in Paramatta, NSW that looks after your financial welfare. Timely preparation of reports providing the correct financial information about a company in a cost-effective manner is what Business Adviser is all about. And yes, being experts and having long experience in the financial markets, they do offer sound business advice for the growth of your business interests.Call or visit for all your bookkeeping and financial planning needs. Whether it is accounting, auditing tax planning, financial services or any other related issue, the professionals at Business Adviser can do it for you.A complete financial and system analysis is an important first step in figuring out what happens next. Once we have an understanding of just what the issues are and what needs to be done to achieve the outcomes the business owners desire, we can begin to put into place the necessary procedures to maximize profit and performance of any business.Article Source:

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Family Term Life Insurance

  • Posted on March 30, 2018 at 2:20 am

By Jane D. Mitchell

Can you find family term life insurance? Term life insurance works by offering insurance for a given term. This term can be relatively short, such as one year, or rather long, such as thirty years. Some insurance companies run their terms until a certain age. When looking for family term life insurance some companies will allow childrens terms to run until theyre eighteen or twenty-five years of age. Term life insurance pays out in a lump sum usually should a disastrous event occur and benefits can range from the tens of thousands of dollars to over one hundred thousand dollar. This can be the difference between a financially grief stricken family and a family who is grief stricken but has the means to continue moving forward. Term life insurance can come in a variety of forms and family term life insurance is no different. You may find level rates that will not rise over time or rates that rise as the insured age. You may find renewable policies or policies that once expired may not be repurchased. It is often worth finding renewable policies because finding life insurance can be difficult and the older you get the more difficult and expensive it will be to ensure you and your family. Usually with term life insurance you pay a rate every month known as the premium. Premiums for family term life insurance are frequently rather low and some offer coverage for children at three and two dollars a month. Adults will frequently cost more than children but it doesnt mean you have to pay for than five dollars for you and your spouse each.

If you search the internet you can start evaluating policies and plans. You can find information that will help you compare the various companies and user reviews that will allow you to know if the company youre thinking of dealing with is actually worth the commitment. Many insurance companies will be willing to give you quotes and approximations with some information and some may even offer approximations without more information than the ages of the people youd like to insure. Benefits can range widely and the more benefits youd like to receive should the worst occur the more you can expect to pay. Sometimes policies will pay out over one hundred thousand dollars to the insureds loved ones in case of death or terminal illness. In many cases this is the difference between a grieving family who can move on and a grieving family who is also not doing well financially. Funeral costs and hospital costs can cost thousands of dollars and whether or not you think youd purchase a plan it can never hurt you to look into the options you have available to you. Policy documents are legal documents so the internet can help you understand the terms in policies when they become rather confusing. An insurance policy can be as easy to obtain as a few clicks of your mouse so try looking today.

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Air Filters &Amp; Air Intakes A Beginners Guide To Modding

  • Posted on February 25, 2018 at 2:32 am

By Carmour Tan

Like humans, almost all mannerism of contraptions that has a motor requires air to function. Vacuum cleaners to hair dryers to lawn mowers and yes; cars, all require the intake of air to work properly.

In cars, air is required in the combustion chamber where fuel is burned to produce power. If you didn’t pay attention in basic science class, air is needed to keep a fire burning. Same concept here. To put things bluntly; more air = better combustion = better acceleration.

There are only two types of air filters available in the market: an open pod or a drop in.

Choosing which one suits you best

Open pods are generally larger in size and requires the removal of your whole standard air intake unit. They have the best performance when it comes to air intake, but lacks in filtration capabilities.

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Drop in air filters on the other hand provide ‘plug and play’ bliss for beginners, as you can simply swap your OEM air filter for these things. No modifications necessary. Air intake is generally better than standard OEM air filters, but again, filtration is not as good.

Deciding on which to get for your car is simple. It all depends on the type of transmission your car uses. An automatic car will benefit from a drop in filter, but will have little or no improvements if fitted with an open pod; the reason being open pods require a rev above 3,000 rpm to be able to perform optimally, and automatic cars generally change gears before the 3,000 rpm mark.

Manual transmission cars however can benefit from both open pod and drop in filters, as the engine revs easier and the driver can decide when to change gears. Life just isn’t fair.

There are several well known brands out there that are synonymous with aftermarket air filters. Brands such as K&N and HKS are probably the best car air filters money can buy.

Increasing the air intake of your car

There are also different ways to do this. Mind you, it may not be the prettiest of ways. It’s called Cold Air Intake (CAI) hoses.

Here’s another theory: cold air is heavier than hot air, so theoretically in the atmosphere, cold air should be located closer to the ground. With this in mind, imagine if you place your air intake hose (hose that directs air into the air filter unit) at the front of the car, and at a low position, cold, or in the case of South East Asia, air that is not so warm, can get into the combustion chamber and help the combustion even more, thus allowing better acceleration.

This however requires one to drill a hole in the middle of one’s bumper. I have seen some pretty well done CAI, but for the most of it, it will look like your car just had a molar removed.

Before getting all excited and deciding to buy a new air filter for your car, take note that aftermarket air filters do allow your car to breathe better, but at the cost of less filtration. This does not mean that fitting an aftermarket air filter will damage your engine in the long run. All it means is that your car’s standard OEM air filter is able to filter tinier dust particles, at the cost of allowing less air through. Aftermarket air filters however are washable, making it a lifetime investment for your car, unless you decide to keep changing filters to test the difference that is.

A simple test to see how dirty your air filter is and also to determine its filtration capabilities is to simply put it up against a source of light. A clean filter would allow one to see light poking through the ‘pores’ of the filter whereas a dirty filter would block out the light entirely. Air filters with good filtration capabilities usually get dirty faster, meaning that it’s doing a good job at filtration, whilst a filter with less filtration capabilities would stay cleaner longer.

About the Author: Expert on articles concerning vehicle insurance. He is also a regular car blog contributor.


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